Stockholm 1912

The development of sports

Compared to 1908 the programme was reduced as well, of the previous 109 events only 102 remained. There was only large critism because of the cancellation of sports as boxing and the track events in cycling (only road races for male individuals and teams were performed). The programme in details:

  • Almost needlessly to note, athletics was again the highlight of the Olympics. Tug-of-war appears now as an independent sport, being before part of the athletics' events.
  • Swimming and water diving are now allowed for women for the first time.
  • Fencing, cycling (even if only road races), rowing, sailing, shooting (but a reduced programme) and gymnastics are performed again.
  • Only the Graeco-Roman style is available for the wrestlers.
  • Equestrian is now performed again, last but not least due to the exertion of Clarence von Rosen who has appealed for the reintroduction for some years.
  • First-time performed was the Modern Pentathlon established by Coubertin that combines the five sports fencing, equestrian, swimming, shooting and running.
  • Within the ball sports only football, tennis and water polo remain.